Aleksandr Rodchenko 1891 —1956
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Rodchenko (Alexander Rodchenko) was born on December 5, 1891, in St. Petersburg, Russia. His father, named Mikhail Mikhailovich Rodchenko, was a theatre designer. His mother, named Olga Evdokimovna, was a laundress. From 1908-1910 Rodchenko was a dental technician at Dental School of Dr. Natanson. From 1910-1914 he studied art at the Kazan School of Art under Nikolai Fechin, then at the Stroganov Art Institute in Moscow.
Rodchenko experienced the influence of Kazimir Malevich, Vladimir Tatlin, Wassily Kandinsky, and other artists working in abstract style. He was the pupil and assistant of Vladimir Tatlin, and his work was initially influenced by Cubism, then Cubo-Futurism. His early drawings and paintings followed the developments of Suprematism and Futurism. He worked with a wide variety of media as a decorator, furniture and theatre designer, printer, painter, sculptor, and photographer. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Rodchenko joined the Bolsheviks. He believed in new opportunities for art and became active in many applications of art, illustration,commercial designs, and photography. In 1921 Rodchenko replaced Wassily Kandinsky as Chairman of State Institute of Artistic Culture (INKHUK) and Chairman of Museum Bureau and Russian State Art Acquisitions Commission. In 1921 he co-wrote the Constructivist's Manifesto. He collaborated with writer and actor Vladimir Mayakovsky, director Vsevolod Meyerhold, composer Dmitri Shostakovich, filmmaker Dziga Vertov, and many others. From 1923-1928 he collaborated with Osip Brik in the Left Front of Art (LEF). In 1925 Rodchenko won four silver medals at Paris International Exhibition.
Alexander Rodchenko became one of the founders of Constructivism and Productivism in Russia. His innovations revolutionized the art of still photography. He used his camera as if it was a drawing instrument. He mastered the use of photo-montage, odd angles, wide frames, and photo-series. His way of photographing from unusual and obscured viewpoints, exploring the potential of shadows, opened new dimensions in photo-art. Rodchenko shot his subjects from high above or below angles, to shock the viewer and to postpone recognition. He made important photo-portraits of actress Lilya Brik, writer Osip Brik, actor Vladimir Mayakovsky, director Vsevolod Meyerhold, director Dziga Vertov, director Aleksandr Dovzhenko, and other Russian culture luminaries. He also organized many photography exhibitions. Rodchenko was the art director in several Soviet-made films. His most innovative and interesting work was his graphic design and montage works for advertisements and movie posters, which was his major contribution to film-poster art. His posters for such films as 'Battleship Potemkin' (1925), 'Kinoglaz' (1924), and other works, are regarded among the highest achievements in film-poster art.
In 1928 Rodchenko wrote a manifesto titled "Against the Synthaetic Portrait, For the Snapshot" in which he argues for the documentary objectivity of photography. "Snapshots allow no one to idealize or falsify Lenin", wrote Rodchenko. He was soon attacked by Stalinists and was accused of supporting Trotsky and his ideas. His exhibitions were canceled, he was dismissed from major projects and jobs. For many years he was deprived of livelihood. That caused him a depression, high blood pressure, and other health problems. Rodchenko was officially charged with "bourgeois formalism" and his photography was censored and banned from public shows. However, from 1934-1938, he was commissioned to make several photo-albums for Soviet propaganda, such as: "Belomor-kanal imeni Stalina" and "Krasnaya Armia" (Red Army 1938). Rodchenko made a beautiful job, but remained under suspicion during many years of the dictatorship of Joseph Stalin.
Alexander Rodchenko was in opposition to Socialist realism. From the late 1930's to the end of his life he was forced to quit photography amidst the paranoia of Stalinist censorship. He returned to painting sporadically after 1942, made a series of abstract decorative compositions, but his art was ostracized. He lived in poverty and obscurity for the last twenty years of his life. Rodchenko was constantly harassed by officials for his art, his membership in the Union of Soviet Artists was canceled, and he was made an outcast. His membership was restored only in 1954, after the death of Stalin. Rodchenko died of a stroke on December 3, 1956, in Moscow, and was laid to rest in Donskoe Cemetery in Moscow, Russia.
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Photographs by Aleksandr Rodchenko are in the permanent collections of many of the foremost public photographic collections including: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY; The Museum of Modern Art, NY; Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland OH; The Getty Museum of Art, Santa Monica CA; San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, and the San Francisco CA
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