Arshile Gorky 1904 —1948

Biography

"Abstraction allows man to see with his mind what he cannot physically see with his eyes... Abstract art enables the artist to perceive beyond the tangible, to extract the infinite out of the finite. It is the emancipation of the mind. It is an explosion into unknown areas."

"If Picasso drips, I drip... For a long while I was with Cezanne, and now I am with Picasso."
"I seek a form or language which will express my ideas for our time."
  Arshile Gorky


Arshile Gorky was a preeminent American Modernist artist. His work was a unique conflation of the Surrealist, Cubist, and Expressionist artistic styles. His diverse body of work was crucial for the emergence of the Abstract Expressionist style, both in form and content. Throughout his career, Gorky remained extremely responsive to the artistic influences both domestic and international.

Arshile Gorky takes his place among the tragic heroes of art history. A survivor of the Armenian genocide at the beginning of the twentieth century, he was haunted for the rest of his life by the specters of his lost homeland. His vivid, expressionist masterpieces, which anticipated Abstract Expressionism, fusing the objective and the subjective within the artistic discourse, is the basis of his being credited as being a major forces behind the emergence of the Abstract Expressionist movement, which established New York an important arts center, and, by extension, the United States as the cultural capital of the post-war world.

It was in New York where Gorky met and developed a personal and artistic friendship with such artists as Stuart Davis, John Graham, and fellow émigré Willem de Kooning. New York's climate of constant artistic exchange proved auspicious for the formation of Gorky's early style which relied heavily on Cézanne's compositional method and Picasso's Synthetic Cubist forms. The colorful palette of the Fauves and other European Expressionists, among which German-based Wassily Kandinsky proved to be a major avant-garde force, were also formative influences on the artist.

 

Born Vosdanik Adoian on April 15, 1904, he changed his name to Arshile Gorky when he moved to the U.S., for reasons both personal and practical. His birthplace was the now-demolished city of Khorkom, a tiny village near the beautiful Lake Van in the Western Armenian countryside. His mother, Shushan, introduced Gorky to art before he could even speak, taking him to admire Armenian architecture and ancient painted manuscripts. When Gorky was only six years old, his father, Setrag Adoian, moved to America to find work, like many Armenian men who wanted to avoid conscription while sending money to support their families back home. Gorky stayed with his mother and sister in Armenia, moving with them first to Van, Old City, in 1910, and later to Aykesdan, Garden City. This separation from his father caused Gorky to feel abandoned and estranged from him for the rest of his life. For ten years, they moved from town to town, Gorky taking odd jobs as a carpenter and printer's assistant and carving womens combs when in 1919 Gorky's mother died of starvation and he and his sister Vartoosh fled to New York arriving at Ellis Island in 1920 when Gorky was only 15 years old. In America they moved to Watertown MA to live with his other sisters. He got his first taste of fine art at the Boston Museum of Fine Art where he spent most of his time after he was fired from his job at a rubber factory for "drawing on the job." Mostly self-educated, Gorky took some painting lessons in the early 1920s from a woman who told him that an Armenian could not be a painter; whereas Russians were considered chic and artistic, Armenians were associated with starving refugees. Gorky thus created a Russian past for himself, sometimes claiming to be a Georgian prince. He wanted to be free of his real past, yet after much consideration he settled on a name that reflected his tormenting experiences: "Arshile" is Russian for Achilles, and "Gorky" translates into "the bitter one."

After intermittently attending the School of Fine Art and Design in Boston, Gorky moved to New York City to attend the National Academy of Design, and he took several teaching jobs as well. Within a few years, he had established himself as a teacher at the New School of Design in New York and gained a small circle of admirers, among them Mark Rothko, who studied under Gorky. During this period, he was doing mostly portraits in an abstract style that was greatly influenced by painters of the School of Paris, such as Matisse, Picasso, and Miró. In 1930, when Alfred H. Barr was preparing a group show for the Museum of Modern Art entitled The Exhibition of Works by 46 Painters and Sculptors Under 35 Years of Age, Gorky had his first big break. After visiting Gorky's studio, Barr chose three still lifes to include in the show, which was to be Gorky's first. Following this show, Gorky was included in an exhibit at the New School, and he was exhibited twice at the Downtown Gallery. In 1935, he achieved even more critical attention by appearing at the Whitney Museum of American Art in a show called Abstract Painting in America, which exhibited four of his works. The Whitney would continue to show his work annually for the next eight years.

Gorky was one of the first artists to enlist with the Public Works of Art project in 1933, formed to give artists work during the Depression. He joined the Artists' Union, which began in 1935 as the first attempt ever to organize artists as laborers in America. Much of the art being created showed a social realist influence, and many of the murals being painted by the WPA resembled propaganda.

This context of art "for the masses" and artists as "cultural workers" frustrated Gorky, who believed in the hallowed transcendence of the artist over politics. In a lecture at the Artists' League, he finally broke with the current prominence of overtly political art when he declared it "poor art for poor people!"

Despite this antipathy toward political art, he applied to the newly formed Works Progress Administration/Federal Art Project in 1935, and began work on a series of murals on the theme of aviation that would occupy much of his attention until he left the WPA in 1939. He also had multiple shows during this time, including a one-person exhibit at the Guild Art Gallery that was highly praised in the New York Post. Around this time he also painted his famous Nighttime, Enigma, and Nostalgia series. However, despite the fact that Gorky was well known and respected among artists in New York, he suffered great financial strife. Like many artists who received critical attention during the Depression, he did not reap the rewards until much later, as the few collectors still buying art during this time refused to take chances on newcomers. Gorky often spontaneously sold paintings and drawings for as little as five dollars out of desperation, using the money to buy more painting supplies.

Gorky always worked hard for little material reward, and he was as uncompromising in his personal life as he was in his art. He searched for years to find the "perfect" woman, falling in love three times and getting married once before he finally found her. When he met Agnes Magruder, a wealthy American socialite, he was 40 and she was only 20. When they married, Gorky embarked upon the most productive period of his career, finally coming into his own as an artist. Beginning in 1941 with the Garden in Sochi series, and continuing up to his death in 1948, Gorky created such masterpieces as The Liver is the Cock's Comb, One Year the Milkweed, and Waterfall. He gained much of his inspiration from the landscape surrounding his wife's country home in Connecticut, where they often stayed for extended periods of time, and which reminded him of his lost Armenian homeland.

Gorky and Agnes enjoyed five years of marriage and had two daughters before tragedy returned to Gorky's life. In January of 1946, Gorky's studio, a converted barn on his wife's Connecticut property, burned down, taking with it many of the paintings, drawings, and books Gorky owned. One month later, he was diagnosed with colon cancer and underwent a colostomy, which left him physically handicapped and emotionally scarred.

His deteriorating marriage finally exploded when he discovered that Agnes was having an affair with Gorky's friend Roberto Matta, the Surrealist painter. Soon thereafter, she left, taking his beloved children with him. The same week as his breakup, Gorky was involved in a car accident when the New York gallery owner Julien Levy, who was driving under the influence of alcohol, brought the artist home. Gorky suffered a fractured back and neck and was put in an enormous leather neck brace that held his head up. Shattered physically, emotionally, and spiritually, betrayed by or estranged from everyone he most loved, Gorky retreated to his house in Connecticut, where he hung himself from the rafters of the barn on July 21, 1948. His parting phrase was written in chalk on a crate: "Goodbye, my loveds."

To Gorky, art was nothing short of a necessity; he put his painting before all else, and when all else failed him, he relied upon painting to pull him through. He faced more than his share of misfortunes, which began in his early life and brought him to an early death. In his art he sought to reclaim the past that had been stolen from him, and to shape his future, which always, and ultimately tragically, fell short of his expectations and ambitions.

An important source for modern and contemporary American & European Art in East Hampton, New York & worldwide, Janet Lehr Fine Arts' spectacular wide-ranging inventory consists of unique paintings, drawings, large & small scale sculpture, monotypes, prints and photographs  by Ansel Adams, Milton Avery, Richard Avedon, Jean-Michel Basquiat, Romare Bearden, Fernando Botero, Cartier-Bresson, Marc Chagall, Alvin Langdon Coburn, Willem De Kooning, Richard Diebenkorn, Thomas Eakins, Childe Hassam, David Hockney, Winslow Homer, Wolf Kahn, Jeff Koons, Fernand Leger, Roy Lichtenstein, Man Ray, Thomas Moran, Henry Matisse, Pablo Picasso, Jackson Pollock, Robert Rauschenberg, Mark Rothko, Cindy Sherman, Charles Sheeler, Bert Stern, Alfred Stieglitz, Andy Warhol, Carleton E Watkins, Tom Wesselmann and Andrew Wyeth.

To bookmark Janet Lehr Fine Arts Gallery website: http://www.janetlehrfinearts.com

View synoptic biography below.

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PUBLIC COLLECTIONS: USA

Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Arizona State University Art Museum, Artists Rights Society, Blanton Museum of Art, Austin, TX, MIT List Visual Arts Center, Cambridge, MA, The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL, Pomona College Museum of Art, Claremont, CA, The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH, Weatherspoon Art Museum, Greensboro, NC, MFAH - Museum of Fine Arts Houston, Houston, TX, Kemper Museum of Contemporary Art, Kansas City, MO, Polk Museum of Art, Lakeland, FL, University of Kentucky Art Museum (UK Art Museum), Lexington, KY, Los Angeles County Museum of Art - LACMA, Los Angeles, CA, MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CA, Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI, The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, MN, Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, NJ, Naples Museum of Art, Naples, FL, Grey Art Gallery, NYU, New York City, NY, Solomon R., Guggenheim Museum, New York City, NY, MoMA - Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY, Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, NY, The Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, OH, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art - SFMOMA, San Francisco, CA, Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA, Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, Utica, NY, Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, DC, Kreeger Museum, Washington, DC, Smithsonian, American Art Museum, Washington, DC, Mattatuck Museum, Waterbury, CT, Carnegie Museums of Pittsburgh/Carnegie Institute, Chrysler Museum of Art, Cincinnati Art Museum, Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art, Dallas Museum of Art, Denver Art Museum, Fogg Art Museum: Harvard University Art Museums, Frederick R Weisman Art Museum, Godwin-Ternbach Museum, Queens College, CUNY, Greenville County Museum of Art, Hunter Museum of American Art, Jack S Blanton Museum of Art, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Mildred Lane Kemper Art Museum, Montana Historical Society, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC, National Museum of American Art-Smithsonian, Neuberger Museum of Art, New York University Collection/Grey Art Gallery, Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Saint Louis Art Museum, San Francisco Museum of Modern Art (SF MOMA), The Arkansas Arts Center, The Columbus Museum of Art, Georgia, The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, The University of Arizona Museum of Art, The University of Michigan Museum of Art, Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, and Whistler House Museum of Art.


PUBLIC COLLECTIONS: FOREIGN

Canada
National Gallery of Canada - Musée des beaux-arts du Canada, Ottawa, ON

Israel
The Israel Museum, Jerusalem

Italy
Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice

Japan
National Museum of Modern Art Tokyo (MOMAT), Tokyo

Portugal
Berardo Museum - Collection of Modern and Contemporary Art, Lisbon
Centro de Arte Moderna José de Azeredo Perdigão - Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon


South Korea
Leeum - Samsung Museum of Art, Seoul

Spain
Museo Thyssen-Bornemisza, Madrid

United Kingdom
Tate Britain, London (England)
Tate Modern, London (England)

ARSHILE GORKY - Solo shows 35

2010
Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective - MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CA
Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective - Tate Modern, London (England)
Arshile Gorky - Virginia Summer 1946 - Gagosian Gallery - Davies Street, London (England)

2009
Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA

2007
Arshile Gorky - Drawings, The Early Years - University of Virginia Museum, Charlottesville, VA
Arshile Gorky - Hommage - Centre Pompidou - Musée National d´Art Moderne, Paris

2004
Arshile Gorky -The Early Years - Jack Rutberg Fine Arts, Los Angeles, CA
Arshile Gorky - A Retrospective of Drawings - The Menil Collection, Houston, TX

2003
Arshile Gorky: A Retrospective of Drawings - Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, NY
Arshile Gorky - Centro de Arte Moderna José de Azeredo Perdigão - Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon


2002
Arshile Gorky - Galerie 1900-2000, Paris
Arshile Gorky - portraits - Gagosian Gallery - Madison Avenue, New York City, NY

1998
Arshile Gorky - Paintings and Drawings 1929-1942 - Gagosian Gallery - Madison Avenue, New York City, NY

1997
Arshile Gorky - Manny Silverman Gallery, Los Angeles, CA

1996
Arshile Gorky - Centro de Arte Moderna José de Azeredo Perdigão - Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon

Arshile Gorky: The Breakthrough Years - The Modern Art Museum of Fort Worth, Fort Worth, TX

1995
Arshile Gorky and the genesis of abstraction: drawings from the early 1930s - The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, MD
Arshile Gorky - the breakthrough years - Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY
Arshile Gorky: The Breakthrough Years - The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC
Arshile Gorky and the genesis of abstraction: drawings from the early 1930s - Milwaukee Art Museum, Milwaukee, WI

1994
Arshile Gorky and the genesis of abstraction: drawings from the early 1930s - Princeton University Art Museum, Princeton, NJ
Arshile Gorky Late Paintings - Gagosian Gallery - Madison Avenue, New York City, NY

1993
Arshile Gorky - Centro de Arte Moderna José de Azeredo Perdigão - Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon


1992
Arshile Gorky : opere su carta - Palazzo delle Esposizioni, Rome
Arshile Gorky. Opere su carta - Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice

1991
Arschile Gorky. Arbeiten auf Papier 1929-1947 / Works on Paper, 1929-1947 - Schirn Kunsthalle, Frankfurt/Main
Arshile Gorky : Oeuvres sur papier 1929-1947 - Musée d'Art moderne de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne

1990
Arshile Gorky - Whitechapel Art Gallery, London (England)

1978
Arshile Gorky - In Memory - Washburn Gallery, New York City, NY

1964
Arshile Gorky - Zeichnungen - Museum Folkwang Essen, Essen
Arshile Gorky - Zeichnungen - Amerika-Haus Berlin, Berlin
Arshile Gorky : Zeichnungen - Kunstverein in Hamburg, Hamburg
Arshile Gorky - Zeichnungen - Badischer Kunstverein, Karlsruhe


1963
Drawings, Studies, and Paintings by Arshile Gorky - Arts Club of Chicago, Chicago, IL

1962
Arshile Gorky: 1904-1948 - MoMA - Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY

 

Group shows

2010
Cézanne and American Modernism - Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, AZ
Constructive Spirit: Abstract Art in South and North America, 1920s-50s - Amon Carter Museum, Fort Worth, TX
The Modern Myth: Drawing Mythologies in Modern Times - MoMA - Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY
Constructive Spirit: Abstract Art in South and North America - The Newark Museum, Newark, NJ
Cézanne and American Modernism - The Baltimore Museum of Art, Baltimore, MD
Modern in America: Works on Paper, 1900-1950s - The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL
Different Strokes: 20th Century Drawing - George Adams Gallery, New York City, NY

2009
MOCA´s First Thirty Years - MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CA
Drawing - Locks Gallery, Philadelphia, PA
Cezanne and American Modernism - Montclair Art Museum, Montclair, NJ
Bilderträume. Die Sammlung Ulla und Heiner Pietzsch - Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin
The American artists from the Russian empire - State Tretyakov Gallery on Krymsky Val, 10, Moscow
Cézanne and Beyond - Philadelphia Museum of Art, Philadelphia, PA
The American artists from the Russian empire - Benois Wing, St. Petersburg
Action/Abstraction: Pollock, de Kooning, and American Art, 1940-1976 - Albright-Knox Art Gallery, Buffalo, NY

2008
PEGGY GUGGENHEIM E LA NUOVA PITTURA AMERICANA - Peggy Guggenheim Collection, Venice
1945-1949 Repartir à zéro, comme si la peinture n'avait jamais existé - Musée des Beaux-Arts de Lyon, Lyon
Action/Abstraction - Saint Louis Art Museum, Saint Louis, MO
Action/Abstraction: Pollock, de Kooning, and American Art, 1940-1976 - The Jewish Museum of New York, New York City, NY
International Drawings of the 20th Century - CDS Gallery, New York City, NY
Die Hände der Kunst - MARTa Herford, Herford
"How Artists Draw: Toward the Menil Drawing Institute and Study Center" - The Menil Collection, Houston, TX
Action Painting - Foundation Beyeler, Riehen
The Hands of Art - SMAK Stedelijk Museum voor Actuele Kunst, Gent

2007
Be-Bomb: the Transatlantic War of Images and all that Jazz. 1946-1956 - Museu d´Art Contemporani de Barcelona - MACBA, Barcelona
Abstract Expressionism and Other Modern Works: The Muriel Kallis Steinberg Newman Collection in The Metropolitan Museum - The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY
Art and Psyche: The Freudian Legacy - CDS Gallery, New York City, NY
The Modern Landscape - The Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, OH
The Eclectic Eye - Pop and Illusion - Taylor Museum - Colorado Springs Fine Arts Center, Colorado Springs, CO
Modern Masters from the Guggenheim Collection - - Guggenheim Hermitage Museum, Las Vegas, NV (closed)
Automatic - Franklin Parrasch Gallery, New York City, NY
Picasso and American Art - Walker Art Center, Minneapolis, MN
Pathways and Parallels: Roads to Abstract Expressionism - Hollis Taggart Galleries, New York City, NY
Picasso and American Art - San Francisco Museum of Modern Art - SFMOMA, San Francisco, CA
For the People - The Frances Lehman Loeb Art Center, Poughkeepsie, NY

2006
Picasso to Pop: Aspects of Modern Art - The Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, Hartford, CT
Picasso and American Art - Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, NY
Summer Selections: Portraits - Places - Perspectives - Jack Rutberg Fine Arts, Los Angeles, CA
Société Anonyme - Modernism in America - Hammer Museum, Los Angeles, CA
Verrückte Liebe: Von Dalí bis Bacon. Die Sammlung Ulla und Heiner Pietzsch - Bank Austria Kunstforum, Vienna
Exil und Moderne - H.W. Janson und die Sammlung der Washington University in St. Louis - Museum für Neue Kunst, Freiburg

2005
After Cézanne - MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CA
After Cezanne - The Geffen Contemporary at MOCA, Los Angeles, CA
American Modernist Works from Private Collections - Lori Bookstein Fine Art, New York City, NY
Exil und Moderne - Kunsthalle St. Annen Lübeck, Lübeck
Acquisitions - Jack Rutberg Fine Arts, Los Angeles, CA
BIG BANG - Centre Pompidou - Musée National d´Art Moderne, Paris
Surrealism USA - Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, AZ
Modern and Contemporary Works on Paper - - Forum Gallery - Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA (closed, 2009)
Dream On: Surrealism and Beyond from the Phoenix Art Museum Collection - Phoenix Art Museum, Phoenix, AZ
Drawings: 1945 to now - Russell Bowman Art Advisory, Chicago, IL
EXIL UND MODERNE - Meisterwerke der klassischen Avantgarde aus der Sammlung der Washington University, St. Louis - Angermuseum Erfurt, Erfurt
Black - Thomas McCormick Gallery, Chicago, IL
Informalismo y Expresionismo abstracto en las colecciones Guggenheim - Museo Guggenheim de Arte Moderno y Contemporáneo, Bilbao
Into The Unknown - Abstraction From The Collection - MOCA Grand Avenue, Los Angeles, CA
"Out of Site - Selections from the Marsha S. Glazer Collection." - Art Museum at U.C. Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA

2004
Action Painting. Arte americana 1940 - 1970: dal disegno all'opera - Fondazione Cassa di Risparmio di Modena, Modena
Exil und Moderne - H.W. Janson und die Sammlung der Washington University in St. Louis - Opelvillen, Rüsselsheim
Modern Means: Continuity and Change in Art from 1880 to the Present - Mori Art Museum, Tokyo
Everyday Mysteries: Modern and Contemporary Still Life - DC Moore Gallery, New York City, NY
Das MoMA in Berlin. Meisterwerke aus dem Museum of Modern Art, New York - Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin
Drawings - - Gagosian Gallery - Heddon Street (closed), London (England) (closed)

2003
It's Not the Size that Counts: Treasures Big & Small - Jack Rutberg Fine Arts, Los Angeles, CA
Drawing Modern - Works from the Agnes Gund Collection - The Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland, OH
El Expresionismo Abstracto Americano en las Colecciones Españolas - Museo de Arte Contemporáneo Esteban Vicente, Segovia
Metafisica - Scuderie del Quirinale, Rome
The Heroic Century: The Museum of Modern Art Masterpieces, 200 Paintings & Sculp - MFAH - Museum of Fine Arts Houston, Houston, TX
Perspectives V - Borzo Modern & Contemporary, Amsterdam
Picasso, Matisse, and Other Modern Masters - Bowdoin College Museum of Art, Brunswick, ME
International Abstraction - Making Painting Real - Seattle Art Museum, Seattle, WA

2002
All American, Part II - Greenberg Van Doren Gallery, New York City, NY
Think Small - Little Treasures from the Permanent Collection - Norton Museum of Art, West Palm Beach, FL
Images of women - Jack Rutberg Fine Arts, Los Angeles, CA
Surrealism - Desire Unbound - The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City, NY
The Tiger's Eye - The Art of a Magazine - Yale University Art Gallery, New Haven, CT

2001
The Kindness of Friends - A Selection of Gifts of Drawings and Prints, 1919-200 - Los Angeles County Museum of Art - LACMA, Los Angeles, CA
Da Kandisky a Pollock - Museo Cantonale d´Arte Lugano, Lugano
Collecting the Vanguard: Art from 1900-1970 - The Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin, OH
International Offerings - Jack Rutberg Fine Arts, Los Angeles, CA
Evidence of Love, Romance, Desire & Fantasy - Jack Rutberg Fine Arts, Los Angeles, CA

2000
Fortieth Anniversary of the Allan Stone Gallery - Allan Stone Gallery, New York City, NY
Land of the Free, Home of the Brave: Artist Immigrants in America in the 20th Century - Crane Kalman Gallery, London (England)
Twentieth-Century American art - the Ebsworth Collection - The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

1999
Drawn from Artists' Collections - The Drawing Center, New York City, NY
De Durero a Rauschenberg: La quintaesencia del dibujo - Museo Guggenheim de Arte Moderno y Contemporáneo, Bilbao
Fruits & Flowers, Skies & Pies - Allan Stone Gallery, New York City, NY
Linhas de Sombra - Centro de Arte Moderna José de Azeredo Perdigão - Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, Lisbon


1998
The New York School - MoMA - Museum of Modern Art, New York City, NY
The New York School - Gagosian Gallery - Madison Avenue, New York City, NY
Defining the Edge - Early American Abstraction-Selections - Laguna Art Museum, Laguna Beach, CA

1994
An Exhibition in Memory of Raoul Hague - Lennon, Weinberg, Inc., New York City, NY

1989
60 Meisterwerke aus der Solomon R. Gugenheim Foundation - Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin

1984
Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America 1927-1944 - Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, NY
Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America 1927-1944 - The Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Minneapolis, MN
Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America 1927-1944 - San Francisco Museum of Modern Art - SFMOMA, San Francisco, CA

1983
Abstract Painting and Sculpture in America 1927-1944 - Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburg, PA

1981
America 20er-40er Jahre Amerikanischer Realismus - Kunstverein in Hamburg, Hamburg

1978
American Art at Mid-Century: The Subjects of the Artist - The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

1976
New York in Europa - Neue Nationalgalerie, Berlin

1973
American Art at Mid-Century 1 - The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC

1964
Documenta 3 - Documenta, Kassel

1962
Geometric abstraction in America : March - Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, NY

1961
The Ben Heller Collection of Paintings of the School of New York - The Art Institute of Chicago, Chicago, IL

1959
Documenta 2 - Documenta, Kassel
The Romantic Agony: From Goya to de Kooning - Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, Houston, TX
The New American Painting - Tate Britain, London (England)

1958
The New American Painting - BOZAR - Palais des Beaux-Arts / Paleis voor Schone Kunsten, Brussels
The New American Painting - Stedelijk Museum Amsterdam, Amsterdam
The New American Painting - Kunsthalle Basel, Basel

The Disquieting Muse: Surrealism - Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, Houston, TX

1956
Large Scale Paintings II - Contemporary Arts Museum Houston, Houston, TX

1953
5th Anniversary Exhibition - - Sidney Janis Gallery, New York City, NY (closed)

 

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